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Transgenic & Knockout Mice - Activities


  • to develop migration related conditional knockout mice and RNAi knock-downs
  • to generate knock-ins of mutant and tagged molecules
  • to derive cell lines and develop vectors

Mice in Development by the CMC | Other Migration-related Mice & Cell Lines

Mice in Development by the CMC

Target Method Status / Publication Contact (Collaborators)
Alpha-4 integrin - (Ser1021Ala) Targeted - floxed Completed - mouse generated, evaluation in process Ginsberg
Alpha-5 integrin Targeted - floxed Completed - mouse generated, evaluation in process Hynes
Beta-3 integrin L746A Targeted - knockin Completed - mouse available Petrich et al., 2007 (CMC Update Article) Ginsberg
Beta-3 integrin Y747A Targeted - knockin Completed - mouse available Petrich et al., 2007 (CMC Update Article) Ginsberg
Cofilin 1 Targeted - floxed Completed - mouse generated, evaluation in process Burds (Condeelis)
Coronin 1C Gene Trap (Bay Genomics) Completed - incomplete trap Burds, Bay Genomics (Bear)
Evl Targeted - floxed Completed - mouse available Kwiatkowski et al., 2007 (CMC Update Article) Gertler
Evl Targeted - nonfloxed Completed - mouse available Kwiatkowski et al., 2007 (CMC Update Article) Gertler
GIT2 Gene Trap (Bay Genomics) Completed - mouse available Mazaki et al., 2006 Horwitz
Lamellipodin Targeted - floxed Completed - incomplete KO Gertler
Layilin Targeted - floxed Completed - mouse generated, evaluation in process Hynes
Layilin Targeted - nonfloxed Completed - mouse generated, evaluation in process Hynes
mEna Targeted - floxed Completed - mouse generated, evaluation in process Gertler
Mena / VASP / Evl ES cell lines Completed - lines available Dent et al., 2007; Kwiatkowski et al., 2007 (CMC Update Article) Gertler
Paxillin conditional expression of FLAG-mCherry-Paxillin Completed - mouse available Ginsberg
RIAM Targeted - floxed Completed - mouse generated, evaluation in process Gertler
SRF Targeted at ROSA26 Completed - mouse generated, evaluation in process Gertler
Txnip Targeted - floxed Completed - mouse available Yoshioka et al., 2007 Burds (Lee)
DOCK 180 Targeted - floxed and non-floxed Completed, publication in progress - Laurin et al., 2013 (CMC Update Article) Burds (Cote)
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Other Migration-related Mice

Target Description Phenotype Publication
Abl Abl-/- mice that survive to adulthood have low levels of mature B and T cells. Hardin et al., 1995
Abl Defect in spermatogenesis. Kharbanda et al., 1998
Abl Perinatal mortality, runtedness, and abnormal spleen, thymus, head, and eye development. Schwartzberg et al., 1991; Tybulewicz et al., 1991
Abl / Arg double Die E11 - neurulation defects. Koleske et al., 1998
Akt1 (PKB-α)
JAX: 1
Partial lethality between E13.5 and 3 weeks after birth. Surviving adults are fertile, but show 20% weight reduction. No effect seen on glucose metabolism. Cho et al., 2001
Akt2 (PKB-β) Reduction of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle and fat and reduction in whole body glucose disposal. Cho et al., 2001
C3G Death before E7.5. Ohba et al., 2001
C3G hypomorph Death at E11.5 due to haemorrhage and vascular integrity defects. Voss et al., 2003
Calpain I (μ-calpain) (Capn1) Viable and fertile. Reduced platelet aggregation and reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of the beta3 subunit of alphaIIbbeta3 integrin. Azam et al., 2001
Calpain II (m-calpain) (Capn2) None, though elimination of the Capn4 gene (see below) destroys the CalpainII complex. Arthur et al., 2000
Calpain IV (Capn4) Embryonic lethality at mid-gestation with defects in the cardiovascular system, hemorrhaging, and accumulation of erythroid progenitors. Arthur et al., 2000
Cardiac alpha myosin, heavy chain Dosage effects and functional deficits in the heart. Jones et al., 1996
CAS (p130) Embryonic lethality showing systemic congestion and growth retardation. Honda et al., 1998
CASK insertional mutant X-linked gene, all males show cleft palate and die within 24 hours of birth. Viable females did not display cleft palate, but had smaller heads than wt littermates, showed spinal kinks epidermal hyperplasia, were 50% the weight of littermates, failed to thrive and rarely produced any litters. Laverty and Wilson, 1998
Caveolin-1 Cardiovascular defects due to lack of nitric-oxide and Calcuim signaling, and hyperproliferation of lung endothelial cells. Drab et al., 2001; Razani et al., 2001
Caveolin-1 Dramatic increase in the incidence of urinary calcium stone formation. Cao et al., 2003
Caveolin-1 Heart defects due to myocyte hypertropy with interstitial/perivascular fibrosis. Also shows hyperactivation of the Ras-p42/44 MAP kinase cascade. Cohen et al., 2003
Caveolin-1 Null mice are unresponsive to insulin due to drastic reduction in insulin receptor protein levels (> 90%). IR-mRNA levels are normal, suggesting caveolin-1 is necessary for insulin receptor stabilization. Cohen et al., 2003
Cbl-b Viable and grossly normal. Chiang et al., 2000
Cbl-c Viable, fertile, grossly normal. Increased number of T-cell receptor B expressing cells, lymphoid hyperplasia, and primary splenic extramedullary hemopoiesis. Murphy et al., 1998
Crk / Crk7 Elimination of Crk-II resulted in no obvious abnormalities. Imaizumi et al., 1999
JAX: 1
Developmental arrest in the 10-12 somite stage, increase in p60c-src, p59fyn and p53/p56lyn kinase activity. Nada et al., 1993
JAX: 1
Neural tube defects, death between E9 and E10. Imamoto and Soriano, 1993
Dbl Viable, fertile, grossly normal. correct disposition of the major neural structures and normal cortical stratification. However, in distinct populations of cortical pyramidal neurons, the length of dendrites was significantly reduced. Hirsch et al., 2002
DRAL (FHL2) Viable, grossly normal. Normal cardiac development, and no increase in FHL1 or FHL3 mRNA. Chu et al., 2000
DRAL (FHL2) Viable, grossly normal. Null animals have an exaggerated hypertrophic response to beta-adrenergic stimulation. Kong et al., 2001
Ena / VASP / Evl triple chimera Neuronal ectopias, altered intralayer positioning in the cortical plate, and no axon fiber tract formation during corticogenesis. Kwiatkowski et al., 2007 (CMC Update Article)
Fak Death at E8.5 with impaired blood vessel development. Ilic et al., 2003
Gelsolin (ADF) Gelsolin deficiency was associated with normal skeletal development and endochondral bone growth, but mildly abnormal epiphyseal structure, retained cartilage proteoglycans in metaphyseal trabeculae, and increased trabecular thickness. With age, gelsolin-deficient mice expressed increased trabecular and cortical bone thickness producing mechanically stronger bones. Chellaiah et al., 2000
GIT2 null Alive, fertile, with some splenomegaly and immunodeficiency. Decreased neutrophil polarization and chemotaxis. Mazaki et al., 2006
Grb2 Embryonic lethality at E4. Failure in endoderm differentiation. Chimeric embryos show that Grb2-null cells do not contribute to the epiblast. Saxton et al., 1994; Cheng et al., 1998
Grb2 hypomorph Perinatal death due to cleft palate. Saxton et al., 1994
Integrins review See Review for information on 22 different integrin Kos. Hynes, 2002 (CMC Update Article)
JAX: 1, 2
Severe insulin resistance and death from ketoacidosis within 3-7 days after birth. Accili et al., 1996
JAX: 1, 2
Conditional in pancreatic beta cells only Viable, fertile. Normal blood glucose levels, but loss of insulin secretion in response to glucose, and progressive glucose intolerance. Kulkarni et al., 1999
IRS-1 Postnatal growth was also retarded, and were resistant to insulin, IGF-1 and IGF-2. Tamemoto et al., 1994
IRS-1 Viable, but neonates are half the size of littermates, show impaired glucose tolerance. Araki et al., 1994
IRS-1 / IRS-3
JAX: 1
double Early-onset severe lipoatrophy associated with marked hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Laustsen et al., 2002
LAR-PTP Reduced levels of plasma insulin and glucose, 47% reduction in insulin-stimulated PI3-kinase activity. Ren et al., 1998
LAR-PTP Reduced numbers of cholinergic cells. Van Lieshout et al., 2001
LAR-PTP Viable, but LAR-/- females have mammary gland defects and cannot nurse the pups. Schaapveld et al., 1997
LOK (lymphocyte-oriented kinase) Leukocyte-function-associated aggregation of mitogen-stimulated T cells was greatly enhanced in LOK-deficient mice. Endo et al., 2000
Mena Viable, with misrouted axons, failed decussation of the corpus callosum, and defects in both the hippocampal commissure and the pontocerebellar pathway. Lanier et al., 1999
moesin (Msn) (ERM: ezrin/radixin/moesin) (X-linked gene) Viable, fertile. No change in ezrin or radixin levels. Doi et al., 1999
Myosin heavy chain II-A Defects in cell adhesion and visceral endoderm. Conti et al., 2004
Nck1 / Nck2 Nck genes have broad and overlapping expression pattern and mice deficient in either Nck1 or Nck2 are viable, whereas inactivation of both resulted in profound defects in mesoderm-derived notochord and embryonic lethality at day 9.5. Bladt et al., 2003
Nonmuscle myosin II-B Required for normal development of mouse heart. Tullio et al., 1997
Paxillin Embryonic lethality due to abnormal development of mesodermally derived structures such as the heart and somites. Hagel et al., 2002
Perlecan Perlecan-null mice show severe defects of skeletal developmental and die at mid-gestation of heart failure. Surviving embryos exhibit severe chondrodysplasia between E15 and birth, with short limbs, neck and snout. They have cleft palates and die shortly after birth from respiratory failure. Costell et al., 1999
PI 3-K p100 subunit Viable, with decreased numbers of mature b cells, a block in pro-B-cell differentiation, and a B1 B-cell deficiency. Decreased immunoglobulin levels. Elimination of response to T-cell-dependent antigens, and reduction in response to T-cell-independent antigens. Jou et al., 2002
PI 3-K review Review of PI3k family and signaling component mouse knockouts. Katso et al., 2001
JAX: 1
Decreased anxiety-like behavior, reduced levels of stress hormones. Hodge et al., 2002
JAX: 1
Decreased hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Littler et al., 2003
JAX: 1
Reduced ethanol withdrawal severity. Olive et al., 2001
JAX: 1
Viable, grossly normal. Decreased epinephrine-induced and acetic acid-associated hyperalgesia. Khasar et al., 1999
PKC-eta Delayed and impared wound healing after punch biopsy and increased susceptibility to tumor formation in two-stage skin carcinogenesis. Chida et al., 2003
JAX: 1
Viable, diminished long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus and mild defects in spatial and contextual learning. Abeliovich et al., 1993
PLC-gamma (Plcg1) Embryonic lethal. Embryos appear normal at E8.5, but do not develop past E9.0. Ji et al., 1997
Polycystin-1 (Pkd1) knockout Death from E13.5-birth with polyhydramnios, systemic edema, polycystic kidney and pancreatic disease, and spina bifida occulta and osteochondrodysplasia. Lu et al., 2001
Polycystin-1 (Pkd1) truncation del43/45 Embryonic lethality at E10.5- E15.5 due to edema, focal vascular leaks and hemorrhage. Kim et al., 2000
Polycystin-1 (Pkd1) truncation mutation del34 Embryonic lethality at E15.5-birth with enlarged, cystic kidneys, pancreatic ductal cysts and pulmonary hypoplasia. Lu et al., 1997
Polycystin-2 (Pkd2) Embryonic lethality after E13.5, Adult Pkd2+/- mice have reduced survival. Animals with point-mutant/over/null genotypes develop renal failure and early death (13 months). Wu et al., 2000
Polycystin-2 (Pkd2) Embryos show right pulmonary isomerism, randomization of embryonic turning, heart looping, and abdominal situs. Pennekamp et al., 2002
Profilin I Very early embryonic lethality - no viable Knockout blastocysts found. Heterozygotes show reduced embryonic survival. Witke et al., 2001
Profilin II Mice lacking profilin2 show a block in synaptic actin polymerization in response to depolarization, which is accompanied by increased synaptic excitability of glutamatergic neurons due to higher vesicle exocytosis. Pilo Boyl et al., 2007
JAX: 1
Hets show breast tumors, endometrial hyperplasia, endometiral cancer, hamartoamous tumors of the GI tract, and both prostate and adrenal neoplasias. Most tumors show LOH at Pten. Stambolic et al., 2000
JAX: 1
Homozygotes show early embryonic lethality, Pten+/- mice show hyperplastic-dysplastic changes in the prostate, skin abd colon as well as spontaneous development of germ cell, gonadostromal, thyroid and colon tumors. Di Cristofano et al., 1998
JAX: 1
keratinocyte-specific Within 3 weeks of birth, 90% of k5Pten(flox/flox) mice die of malnutrition. Surviving mice develop spontaneous tumors within 8.5 months of birth. Pups display epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis, leading to wrinkled skin as well as ruffled, shaggy, and curly hair. Suzuki et al., 2003
PTP1B del5/6 Viable, increased insulin sensitivity, failed to gain weight when maintained on a high-fat diet. Elchebly et al., 1999
PTP1B null Low body weight due largely to a dramatic reduction in body fat content and hypermetabolism. Klaman et al., 2000
PYK2 Viable, with suppression of IgM, IgG3 and IgG2a production. Guinamard et al., 2000
JAX: 1
null Mice show baseline neutrophilia, reduced inflammatory peritoneal exudate formation and increased mortality when challenged with Aspergillus fumigatus. Roberts et al., 1999
radixin (Rdx) (ERM: ezrin/radixin/moesin) Normal at birth, but increased levels of conjugated bilirubin at week 4 results in mild liver injury after 8 weeks. Kikuchi et al., 2002
Rho C3 transgenic mice: thymic targeting of transgene abolishing biological function of Rho Maturational, proliferative and cell survival defects during T-cell development were observed, that severely impair the generation of normal numbers of thymocytes and mature peripheral T cells. Henning et al., 1997
ROCK-II 90% embryonic lethal 13.5 days postcoitum due to placental abnormalities. Thumkeo et al., 2003
Shc - (p52ShcA) Embryonic lethal at E11.5 due to cardiovascular defects. Lai and Pawson, 2000
SHP-2 (ptpn11) / EGFR double Premature lethality with aortic stenosis and regurgitation. Chen et al., 2000
SHPS-1 truncation del7/8 Platelets were cleared from the bloodstream more rapidly, peritoneal macrophages from the mutant mice phagocytosed red blood cells more effectively , and null mice exhibited an increase both in the rate of cell spreading and in the formation of filopodia-like structures at the cell periphery. Yamao et al., 2002
SHPS-1 truncation del7/8 Viable, fertile, mild thrombocytopenia, abnormal distribution of B lymphocytes and megakaryocytes in spleen. Inagaki et al., 2000
Src1 (p60-Src) (SrcFK)
JAX: 1, 2
Src -/- mice exhibit osteopetrosis owing to the inability of osteoclasts to form a sealing zone. Lowe et al., 1993
Src1 (p60-Src) (SrcFK)
JAX: 1, 2
Src1-/- mice exhibit moderate motor dysfunction, but normal hippocampal function. Delay in purkinje cell maturation at eh neonatal stage. Nishihara et al., 2003
Syndecan-4 Viable, fertile, grossly normal. Delay in wound healing. Ishiguro et al., 2000; Echtermeyer et al., 2001
Talin 1 Embryonic lethality at E8.5-9.5 with disorganization of embryos at gastrulation. Monkley et al., 2000
Tensin Delayed regeneration of wounded skeletal muscle in Tensin-/- mice, correlates with delayed expression of myosin, paxillin and dystrophin. Ishii and Lo, 2001
Tensin Viable and healthy at birth: weakness, renal failure and cysts in proximal kidney tubules later in life. Analysis of cysts show disruptions in cell matrix junctions and weakening of focal adhesion. Lo et al., 1997
Trio Embryonic lethality between E15.5 and birth. Abnormal skeletal myofibers and aberrant organization in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. O'Brien et al., 2000
Txnip Viable, altered cardiac response to pressure overload. Deletion of Txnip plays an unanticipated role in myocardial energy homeostasis rather than redox regulation. Yoshioka et al., 2007
JAX: 1, 2, 3, 4
Greatly impaired in inflammatory cell recruitment, migration defect in wounded smooth muscle lack of melanomas after chemical induction of melanocytic neoplasms suggests that uPA contributes to malignant progression. Shapiro et al., 1996
uPAR (CD87)
JAX: 1, 2, 3, 4
Adult mice are anxious, exhibit spontaneous seizure activity and have higher susceptibility to pharmacologically induced convulsions: decrease in GABA-immunoreactive interneurons. Powell et al., 2003
uPAR (CD87)
JAX: 1, 2, 3, 4
Delay in mortality following infection with severe malaria. Piguet et al., 2000
uPAR (CD87)
JAX: 1, 2, 3, 4
Reduced platelet survival, but the 2-3fold increase in number of megakaryocyes in marrow and spleen results in increased platelet production to compensate. Piguet et al., 2000
uPAR (CD87)
JAX: 1, 2, 3, 4
Reduction of recruitment of leukocytes to inflamed or infected areas. May et al., 1998; Gyetko et al., 2000
uPAR (CD87)
JAX: 1, 2, 3, 4
u-PAR deficiency Is not lethal and did not affect wound healing as assayed by: arterial neointima formation, neointimal cell accumulation, or migration of smooth muscle cells. Carmeliet et al., 1998
VASP Hyperplasia of megakaryocytes in bone marrow and spleen, but no other macroscopic or microscopic abnormalities. Hauser et al., 1999
VASP Significant reduction in cAMP- and cGMP-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation. Aszódi et al., 1999
VASP protein sequestering Aberrant placement of early-born pyramidal neurons in the superficial layers of both the embryonic and the postnatal cortex in a cell-autonomous fashion. Goh et al., 2002
VASP / Ena double Embryonic Lethal Goh et al., 2002
Vav null Mice are viable and display profound defect in the positive selection of both class I- and II-restricted T cells and while negative selection is not abolished it is much less effective in the absence of Vav. Turner et al., 1997
Vav null Mutant mice have normal antibody responses to haptenated Ficoll, but show defective class switching to IgG and germinal center formation when immunized with haptenated protein. Gulbranson-Judge et al., 1999
Vav1 / Vav2 / Vav3 1/2/3 deficient Mice lacking all Vav family proteins and show that Vav-null mice produce no functional T or B cells and completely fail to mount both T-dependent and T-independent humoral responses. Fujikawa et al., 2003
Vimentin No obvious phenotype. Colucci-Guyon et al., 1994
Vimentin Significant attenuation of flow-induced dilation of mesenteric resistance arteries perfused in vitro. Henrion et al., 1997
Vinculin Death by E10, with embryos displaying 30-40% reduction in size, lack of midline fusion of the rostral neural tube and developmental defects in heart, somites and limbs. Xu et al., 1998
Zyxin Viable, fertile, no obvious histological abnormalities in any of the organs examined. Hoffman et al., 2003
α-actinin-3 Knockout mice are viable. alpha-actinin-3 deficiency results in muscles with fast-twitch, glycolytic fibers developing slower-twitch, more oxidative properties. Chan et al., 2008
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Other Migration-related Cell Lines

Process Modeling Method / Application Publication
Abl / Arg double knockout in neuroepithelial cells Alterations in actin cytoskeleton. Koleske et al., 1998
c-Cbl / Cbl-b c-Cbl Cbl-b double knockout T cells Hyper responsive upon anti-CD3 stimulation because the cells could not down-modulate surface TCR after ligand engagement. Naramura et al., 2002
C3G embryonic fibroblasts Impaired cell adhesion, delayed cell spreading and accelerated cell migration. Ohba et al., 2001
C3G hypomorph in MEFs Abnormal response to PDGF-BB, cell adhesion defects and lacked paxillin and integrin-beta1-positive cell adhesions. Integrin-beta3-positive cell adhesions formed normally. Voss et al., 2003
Calpain IV (Capn4) fibroblasts Decreased migration rates, abnormal organization of actin cytoskeleton, loss of central stress fibers, and decreased numbers of focal adhesions. No proteolysis of talin. Dourdin et al., 2001
CAS (p130) embryonic fibroblasts Impaired formation of actin stress fibers, reduced cell spreading, cell migration, and transformation by activated Src. Honda et al., 1998
CH-ILKBP siRNA in HeLa cells 40% of cells underwent apoptosis 48 hours after siRNA transfection. Loss of membrane translocation of PKB/Akt. Fukuda et al., 2003
Csk embryonic fibroblasts Elimination of G-protein-induced actin stress fibers. Lowry et al., 2002
Ena / VASP / Evl triple neurons Neuritogenesis in Ena/VASP-null neurons can be rescued by restoring filopodia formation through addition of laminin or expression of actin nucleating protein mDia2. Dent et al., 2007
FAK Elevated levels of Pyk2. Sieg et al., 1998
FAK embryonic fibroblasts Reduced migration rate and an increase in the number and size of peripherally localized adhesions. Ilić et al., 1995
FAK / Cas double knockout in embryonic fibroblasts Defects in ephrinA1-induced cell spreading. Carter et al., 2002
Gelsolin osteoclasts Gelsolin deficiency blocks podosome assembly and alpha(v) beta(3) integrin-stimulated signaling, resulting in hypomotile osteoclasts due to the retarded remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Chellaiah et al., 2000
IRS-1 primary beta islet cells Insulin secretory defects in response to glucose and arginine, and 2-fold reduction in insulin expression. Kulkarni et al., 1999
MEKK1 fibroblasts Loss of vinculin in focal adhesions of migrating cells, increased cell adhesion and impeded rear-end detachment. Cuevas et al., 2003
Nck1 / Nck2 embryonic fibroblasts Defects in cell motility and organization of the lamellipodial actin network. Bladt et al., 2003
Paxillin cultured ES cells Delayed spreading on fibronectin and laminin, reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of Fak. Wade et al., 2002
Paxillin fibroblasts Abnormal focal adhesions, reduced cell migration, inefficient localization of Fak, defects in cortical cytoskeleton and cell spreading on fibronectin. Hagel et al., 2002
PI 3-K p85alpha KO polymorphonuclear leukocytes Normal cellular motility in the presence of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor. Yasui et al., 2002
PLC-gamma (Plcg1) MEFs Insulin-like growth factor cannot rescue Plcg1-null cells from suspension-induced cell death. Chattopadhyay and Carpenter, 2002
PLC-gamma (Plcg1) MEFs Null cells show decreased spreading and therefore grow to a higher saturation density. Ji et al., 1998
PLC-gamma (Plcg1) MEFs Studied PDGF effects - found normal increase in plasma membrane ruffles following PDGF addition. Hess et al., 1998
PTEN ES cells Pten -/- ES cells show an enhanced ability to generate tumors in nude and synergistic mice and differentiate aberrantly in culture. Di Cristofano et al., 1998
PTEN ES cells and MEFs Accelerated transition from the G(2)/M to the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. Kandel et al., 2002
PTEN PCT and NIH3T3 fibroblasts Loss of Pten leads to increased AKT activity. Choi et al., 2002
PTP-PEST fibroblasts 2.6-fold increase in phosphorylation of endogenous c-Abl, with prolonged Abl-activation (at least 60 minutes, as compared to less than 30 min for wt cells). Cong et al., 2000
PTP-PEST fibroblasts Increased rate of spreading on fibronectin. Increase in the number and size of vinculin containing focal adhesions. Angers-Loustau et al., 1999
PTP1B embryonic fibroblasts (transformed) Delay in cell spreading. Cheng et al., 2001
PTP1B embryonic fibroblasts (transformed) Enhanced plating efficiency and IGF-I-mediated motility, enhanced IGF-I-mediated protection from apoptosis. Buckley et al., 2002
PTPalpha immortalized embryonic fibroblasts Altered cell shape and reduced focal adhesion kinase (Fak Tyr397) phosphorylation. Zeng et al., 2003
Rac2 neutrophils Neutrophils display significant defects in chemotaxis, in shear-dependent L-selectin-mediated capture on the endothelial substrate Glycam-1 and in both F-actin generation and p38 and unexpected p42/p44 MAP kinase activation induced by chemoattractants. Superoxide production by bone marrow neutrophils was also significantly reduced. Roberts et al., 1999
Rac2 T cells Proliferation was reduced in Rac2(-/-) T cells upon stimulation with either plate-bound anti-CD3 or T cell receptor-specific antigen and was accompanied by decreased activation of mitogen activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and p38 as well as reduced Ca (2)+ mobilization. TCR stimulation-induced actin polymerization was reduced and there were significant phenotypic similarities with Vav (-/-) cells implication Rac2 as a downstream mediator of Vav signaling. Yu et al., 2001
SHPS-1 fibroblasts with truncation del 7/8 Increased rate of spreading on fibronectin, but defective in subsequent polarized extension and migration. Inagaki et al., 2000
Syndecan-4 fibroblasts Normal formation of focal adhesions on fibronectin. Ishiguro et al., 2000
Syndecan-4 fibroblasts Reduced phosphorylation of Fak Tyr(397). Wilcox-Adelman et al., 2002
Talin trophoblast cells Reduced spreading on fibronectin and laminin. Monkley et al., 2000
uPAR embryonic fibroblasts LRP-independent reduction of Rac1 activation. Ma et al., 2002
VASP fibroblasts Very spread - covering twice the substrate surface area as compared to wild type. Normal Mena and Evl levels. Increased activation of PAK pathway. García Arguinzonis et al., 2002
VASP / Ena double Review Bear et al., 2001
Vav1 thymocytes Thymocytes are less efficient at forming conjugates with antigen presenting cells presenting agonist peptide than wild-type cells and this may be related to loss of TCR-induced activation of the integrin LFA-1 associated with these cells. Ardouin et al., 2003
Vinculin embryonic fibroblasts Reduced adhesion to fibronectin, vitronectin, laminin and collagen and increased migration rates over these substrates. Xu et al., 1998
Vinculin F9 embryonal carcinoma cells Altered cell morphology and motility. Absence of stress fibers. Goldmann et al., 1995
Vinculin F9 embryonal carcinoma cells Normal adherence to fibronectin, reduced spreading, increased amounts of alpha-actinin, talin and paxillin at focal adhesions. Volberg et al., 1995
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